Article written by Sergey Gabov (bio at end of article). Sergey has a radio engineer degree from Ryazan State Radio Engineering University in 1991 and graduated from Almaty Biblical Institute in 2000.
God created the world out of nothing through His word. It is quite possible that, exploring the world, science will discover the primary creation matter. This study presents an absolutely new view on information as a foundation of our physical world. I considered a paradox of “Maxwell’s Demon”, where energy and information were put on the same level. Developing and modifying this thought experiment, I introduced an “information transformer”. This instrument helped to see the connection of energy and information on a physical level. I proposed new physical laws of conversion of information into energy and of conservation of information, similar to that of conservation of energy. The new tools, discovered in this thought experiment, allowed me to solve the famous “P versus NP” problem. This research significantly extends the horizons of physics.
It is written in the first chapter of Book of John that the Word was the beginning and the reason of all the creation. We understand that John writes, foremost, about Jesus Christ. But John also pays special attention to the fact that our physical world was established merely with help of the Logos ( “a word”, “an idea”, “information”). God did not use any primary material while creating: “And without him (the Word) was not anything made that was made.” (John 1:3)
These are also well known verses: “The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows the work of his hands” (Psalm 19:1). “For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead” (Romans 1:20). As God created every existing thing by the Word, we can accordingly assume that information is fundamental for physics of our material world. For instance, if we had a world made of ice, then, to explore it, we would consider properties of water. And without this knowledge we would not be able to fully describe the physical laws of that world. This research demonstrates that complete comprehension of physical laws cannot be reached without comprehension of properties of information.
Firstly, let us consider a thought experiment created by James Clerk Maxwell, so called a paradox of Maxwell’s demon.
Some facts from physics of gases to be recalled now. Let there be a cubical container filled with some gas. This container has a thermometer to indicate gas temperature. Suppose it shows 90C. The temperature is known to be a function of molecular kinetic energy. In fact, the gas contains molecules with temperatures of 20C, 30C, 150C, and other varied temperatures. The thermometer indicates their average temperature.
Let us imagine the molecules as peas of various shades of red. The intensity of the red color shows the temperature of a certain molecule. There are peas of light red, red, and dark red. Let us put all the peas into a glass jar and shake the jar. Entropy (a chaos) will increase, and all the peas will distribute throughout the jar. When observed from a distance, the jar will appear to have a certain shade of red. This is an analogue to the temperature of a cubical container.
Let there be another cubical container, with the temperature of a gas 20C. It has molecules with various temperatures, too. If we repeat the above experiment for this container, it will get a paler hue of red.
Now let us join both cubical containers (the hot one and the cold one) together. The process of transferring the energy from the hot one to the cold one will take place. It continues until the temperature reaches approximately equal values in both of them. In this case, the heat transfer must stop when it reaches the temperature of 55C [(90+20)/2]. The result would be the same if the mentioned glass jars were joined together and shaken. The saturated color of the first jar would lighten while the pale color of the second jar would become brighter. As a result, the jars’ contents appear to be the same color if observed from a distance.
Thus, the heat transfer and the entropy increase take place. And now let there be a molecule-sized door between the hot and cold containers of gas. The door can be opened and shut. It is controlled by a “demon”, who analyzes the temperature of a gas molecule approaching the door. If the approaching molecule is from the cold container with the temperature of 55 C and above, then the ‘demon’ lets it pass into the other container. He also releases molecules with temperatures less than 55 C from the hot container to the cold one. Thus, the temperature in the cold cube decreases, while the temperature in the hot cube increases. As a result, we come to a paradox, in which the “demon” makes a heat engine work perpetually, while spending no energy. The “demon” does not allow the cold cube to heat up, and the hot cube to cool down.
This paradox contravenes the second law of thermodynamics: the entropy cannot decrease in a closed system. The solution of the paradox is that the closed system must also include the ‘demon’ itself, which spends energy for analysis and decision-making.
In this research almost the same thought experiment involving a closed system will be conducted, but let there be two ‘demons’. The first ‘demon’ makes decisions. He is an ‘Analyst’. The second ‘demon’ is a ‘Performer’. He either opens or shuts the small door.
Let us now introduce a new concept called ‘information transformer’, by analogy with an ordinary electrical power transformer. The algorithm of usual transformer includes 4 steps:
- 1 – Obtaining the energy of electrical current, which is consumed by the first coil.
- 2 – The first coil of transformer generates an electromagnetic field.
- 3 – The electromagnetic field induces secondary electric current in the second coil.
- 4 – The second coil releases energy as an electrical current.
How does our ‘information transformer’ work?
- 1 – The ‘Analyst’ consumes energy required for the analysis of molecules behavior.
- 2 – The ‘Analyst’ passes information regarding the door controlling to the ‘Performer’.
- 3 – The ‘Performer’ receives the information.
- 4 – The ‘Performer’ opens or shuts the door, decreasing the entropy, that is, increasing the energy of the system.
`Note that the ‘Performer’ does not have to be intelligent. It is just an automaton controlled by commands. Accordingly, the ‘Performer’ can be ‘dismissed’, and an Automatic Door will be used instead.
Consider the process within the time T. During this period of time the ‘Analyst’ makes N decisions (obviously, this is the matter of discrete sequence). The ‘Analyst’ consumes energy Q=q1+q2+…+qN, as a consequence of a decision-making process.
Within this time the ‘Analyst’ generates certain informational sequence of commands: R1, R2, R3 … RN. R is a signal that controls the door at the given moment (such sequence can be recorded to any recording medium). The Automatic Door operates following these commands. As a result, the energy of the system increases by Q output, where Q output = q’1+q’2+…+q’N.
For every single decision the ‘information transformer’ works this way: 1) qn → 2) Rn, 3) Rn → 4) q’n.
We have assumed that the energy in the system is conserved. Consequently, qn = q’n should be valid for every case. However, if the ‘Analyst’ makes an incorrect decision, then he will consume energy qn. But after the Automatic Door performs the command, energy q’n will not be released, and the entropy of the system will increase.
Here is a question: how to check the correctness of the decision Rn made by the ‘Analyst’? The most optimal method is measuring the energy in the system after the Automatic Door performs its duty. If the energy remains the same, then the decision was correct. Consequently, if the energy decreases, then the decision was incorrect. In fact, this is verification of the theory by practice. Besides, this is an ideal verification, since the mentioned information has been received only for the solution of this single problem.
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In daily life people usually make decisions and then put them into practice. For instance, a man needs to get to work by 9 am o’clock. He makes simple calculations, considering the distance, speed, and other factors. Let the final result be equal to 2 hours to reach the workplace. So, he needs to start the journey at 7 am. What is the perfect verification of this solution? It is to start the journey at 7 am, and check the time on arrival.
One more thing to be noticed: the amount of energy, released with each movement of the Automatic door, will vary. If the Automatic Door allows a fast molecule to pass, then the energy of the system increases more rapidly, than if it lets a slow molecule to pass. But this means that the energy consumed by the ‘Analyst’ must vary. This can be understood intuitively. A goalkeeper spends more energy on making a decision for a ball kicked by a famous football player than by a child.
So, the information Rn can be presented as the function of qn (the energy consumed by the Analyst for making the decision Rn):
For instance, 1 J ( joule) was required for decision-making. After the Automatic Door fulfills a command, the energy of the system will increase by 1 J. If 100 J was consumed, then 100 J will be released.
The point is that energy is believed to be a value, characterizing the real physical world. On the contrary, information is an abstract concept, relating rather to math than to physics. Of course, it can be stored by physical objects, but there is no correlation between the information and its media. For instance, 2 apples illustrate the number 2. However, 2 homes or 2 dogs can represent the number 2 as well.
We are talking about the conversion of energy into information and backward in terms of a physical law, which actually exists, but has not been discovered yet. Here is a thought-provoking fact. ‘Energy’ is a generally known word, though not certainly defined. Nobody knows what it is – yet certainly, the law of conservation of energy is widely used. Obviously, nowadays the concept of energy is a physical axiom. It has not been described, but everything is described through it. Analogically, there are such axioms as ‘point’ or ‘line’ in geometry. But an axiom is fundamental for all the processes. Water or ice would be such axiom for the represented previously example of the ‘ice world’. Therefore, the answers to the questions: “what is energy?” and “where does it come from?” – would significantly extend scopes of our understanding of the world.
An objection can be proposed: “If all this were true, then in daily life people would witness the conversion of information into energy. However, such process has not been noticed.”
The counter argument is that a large amount of information is required for releasing a small amount of energy. That is why it cannot be observed in daily life.
The widely-known formula of Einstein can be considered as an analogical case:
There is a huge amount of energy on one side of the equation, and a microscopic mass on the other side. Therefore, with changing a body’s energy, the change of its mass is unnoticeable and cannot be detected. Nevertheless, such change exists and can be calculated.
The Newton’s laws were sufficient for the mankind up to some point. However, without the Einstein’s formula, the calculations in nuclear physics would not be possible. And some things, as, for example, a nuclear reactor, would never exist.
The statement is that energy and information are two sides of one phenomenon. And quite possibly, there is a formula which is similar to E=mc²:
Where k – is a factor of proportionality, which is very likely to be extremely large (can be as c² in the formula of Einstein). And obviously, there is some law of conservation of information alike to the law of conservation of energy.
Imagine that we have some perfect tools: a hammer, a turn-screw, a drill, a spanner, and a chisel. They have always been helpful in home repair. But recently a problem arose: a cell phone is broken and needs to be fixed up. Using the perfect tools mentioned earlier, even the best menders cannot fix it. The problem is in the tools, which are not suitable for this situation. Therefore, other tools are required.
Now-a-days, some problems cannot be solved not because of poor scientists, but because the tools are not appropriate.
To clarify all the stated above, let us consider a problem that no famous mathematician has solved yet. This is the P versus NP problem. In simple terms it questions: “Can checking of a problem’s solution be more complicated than the solution itself?”
Let us return to the thought experiment with the ‘Analyst’ and the Automatic door. In fact, the ‘Analyst’ solves a problem and the Automatic Door verifies the solution.
Problem solving is a process of energy absorption with release of information: qn → Rn. While verification is a process of information absorption with energy release: Rn → q’n.
If verification were more complicated than solution (q’n>qn), then increase of energy in the system would be observed. However, this would break the second law of thermodynamics.
Hence, the verification cannot be more complicated than solution; and the P versus Np problem is solved.
So, we can say that energy is a product of decay of information (the Automatic Door is a source of energy). The sequence R1, R2, R3 … RN appears to remain information, since it can be recorded to any media and cannot be destroyed. However, it makes sense only when it is being used timely by the Automatic Door. Suppose, you know all the winning numbers for a lottery, but the drawing of a lottery has already taken place. Then, the information is already futile (though it was of a great-importance before the drawing). Such information is decayed (empty), similar to an empty bottle that has only a shape without any contents.
As a result, this research significantly extends the horizons of physics.
We have a great opportunity to have a deep insight of Biblical narration about the World creation by the word of God (He said, and it was so). Imagine, what kind of enormous volumes of the information were required for creation of the World! Let us praise the Lord for His deeds!
My name is Sergey Gabov, born in 1967, living in Karaganda, Kazakhstan. I graduated from Ryazan State Radio Engineering University with radio engineer degree in 1991. I accepted Jesus after reading ‘Mere Christianity’ by C.S. Lewis. I was baptized in 1994 in Baptist Church. I graduated from Almaty Biblical Institute in 2000. Currently I am a printer manager. I am married and have 6 children. After I accepted God, I realized why physics had lost its speed of the cognition of the world. At some instant, a scientist has a choice: to admit the Creator and move forward, or just to pretend to be moving forward.